logo

Welcome Guest! To enable all features please Login or Register.

Notification

Icon
Error

36 Pages<1234>»
Favorite pictures!
Riad Basrawi
#21 Posted : Sunday, March 13, 2011 5:04:36 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

1439 Maria Sharapova

Riad Basrawi
#22 Posted : Sunday, March 13, 2011 6:18:47 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

1423 Maria Sharapova

Riad Basrawi
#23 Posted : Sunday, March 13, 2011 6:27:50 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)


This very good looking young man is me!


Riad Basrawi
#24 Posted : Sunday, March 13, 2011 6:34:48 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Astronomy




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Jump to: navigation, search








A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant



Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe.


Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Prehistoric cultures left behind astronomical artifacts such as the Egyptian monuments and Stonehenge, and early civilizations such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Indians, and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky. However, the invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, and even astrology, but professional astronomy is nowadays often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics.


During the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of celestial objects, which is then analyzed using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented towards the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain the observational results, and observations being used to confirm theoretical results.


Amateur astronomers have contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, and astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can still play an active role, especially in the discovery and observation of transient phenomena.


Ancient astronomy is not to be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin and a part of their methods (namely, the use of ephemerides), they are distinct.[1]







Contents


[hide]






[edit] Lexicology


The word astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον), "star" and -nomy from nomos (νόμος), "law" or "culture") literally means "law of the stars" (or "culture of the stars" depending on the translation).


[edit] Use of terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics"


Generally, either the term "astronomy" or "astrophysics" may be used to refer to this subject.[2][3][4] Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties"[5] and "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, and dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena".[6] In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject.[7] However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could actually be called astrophysics.[2] Various departments that research this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics", partly depending on whether the department is historically affiliated with a physics department,[3] and many professional astronomers have physics degrees.[4] One of the leading scientific journals in the field is named Astronomy and Astrophysics.


[edit] History








A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit.



In early times, astronomy only comprised the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye. In some locations, such as Stonehenge, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that likely had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops, as well as in understanding the length of the year.[8]


Before tools such as the telescope were invented early study of the stars had to be conducted from the only vantage points available, namely tall buildings and high ground using the naked eye. As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, China, Egypt, Greece, India, and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled, and ideas on the nature of the universe began to be explored. Most of early astronomy actually consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, and the nature of the Sun, Moon and the Earth in the universe were explored philosophically. The Earth was believed to be the center of the universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the universe.


A particularly important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the later astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations.[9] The Babylonians discovered that lunar eclipses recurred in a repeating cycle known as a saros.[10]






Greek equatorial sun dial, Alexandria on the Oxus, present-day Afghanistan 3rd-2nd century BCE.



Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena.[11] In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos calculated the size of the Earth, and measured the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, and was the first to propose a heliocentric model of the solar system. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and invented the earliest known astronomical devices such as the astrolabe.[12] Hipparchus also created a comprehensive catalog of 1020 stars, and most of the constellations of the northern hemisphere derive are taken from Greek astronomy.[13] The Antikythera mechanism (c. 150–80 BC) was an early analog computer designed to calculating the location of the Sun, Moon, and planets for a given date. Technological artifacts of similar complexity did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks appeared in Europe.[14]


During the Middle Ages, astronomy was mostly stagnant in medieval Europe, at least until the 13th century. However, astronomy flourished in the Islamic world and other parts of the world. This led to the emergence of the first astronomical observatories in the Muslim world by the early 9th century.[15][16][17] In 964, the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest galaxy to the Milky Way, was discovered by the Persian astronomer Azophi and first described in his Book of Fixed Stars.[18] The SN 1006 supernova, the brightest apparent magnitude stellar event in recorded history, was observed by the Egyptian Arabic astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and the Chinese astronomers in 1006. Some of the prominent Islamic (mostly Persian and Arab) astronomers who made significant contributions to the science include Al-Battani, Thebit, Azophi, Albumasar, Biruni, Arzachel, Al-Birjandi, and the astronomers of the Maragheh and Samarkand observatories. Astronomers during that time introduced many Arabic names now used for individual stars.[19][20] It is also believed that the ruins at Great Zimbabwe and Timbuktu[21] may have housed an astronomical observatory.[22] Europeans had previously believed that there had been no astronomical observation in pre-colonial Middle Ages sub-Saharan Africa but modern discoveries show otherwise.[23][24][25]


Riad Basrawi
#25 Posted : Sunday, March 13, 2011 6:49:16 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

http://stellarium.softonic.de/


Try this website!


The best free download of a virtuell planetarium!


You can see all stars in the sky from every point on earth!


 

Riad Basrawi
#26 Posted : Monday, March 14, 2011 7:29:50 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

1395 Maria Sharapova

Riad Basrawi
#27 Posted : Monday, March 14, 2011 7:35:26 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)


Flowers in the garden of my parents!


Riad Basrawi
#28 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:24:26 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)


This is my aquarium, one of my interests!


Riad Basrawi
#29 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:28:22 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#30 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:31:03 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#31 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:33:29 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#32 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:36:09 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#33 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:38:25 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#34 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:41:43 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#35 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:44:32 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#36 Posted : Tuesday, March 15, 2011 6:46:50 PM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)


M 31, the Andromeda galaxy, is the most famous and also the nearest galaxy,


when you look from our own galaxy to others!


Posted: 15.09.2012, 8:14 pm (German time)


 

Riad Basrawi
#37 Posted : Wednesday, March 16, 2011 10:56:32 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

1207 Maria Sharapova


 


Riad Basrawi
#38 Posted : Wednesday, March 16, 2011 10:58:20 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)



Last winter at home!


Riad Basrawi
#39 Posted : Wednesday, March 16, 2011 11:00:23 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Riad Basrawi
#40 Posted : Wednesday, March 16, 2011 11:01:45 AM(UTC)
Riad Basrawi

Rank: Advanced Member

Groups: everyone, registered users, Registered
Joined: 1/10/2011(UTC)
Posts: 761

Thanks: 23 times
Was thanked: 36 time(s) in 34 post(s)

Users browsing this topic
Guest (2)
36 Pages<1234>»
Forum Jump  
You cannot post new topics in this forum.
You cannot reply to topics in this forum.
You cannot delete your posts in this forum.
You cannot edit your posts in this forum.
You cannot create polls in this forum.
You cannot vote in polls in this forum.